$182 ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Rings – (White) Doubl Automotive Lights Lighting Accessories Accent Off Road Lighting ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Doubl Rings White In stock – ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Doubl Rings White In stock – LED,ORACLE,$182,LIGHTING,Illuminated,Automotive , Lights Lighting Accessories , Accent Off Road Lighting,Doubl,Wheel,/antanacathartic218231.html,eliminateddebt.com,–,(White),Rings $182 ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Rings – (White) Doubl Automotive Lights Lighting Accessories Accent Off Road Lighting LED,ORACLE,$182,LIGHTING,Illuminated,Automotive , Lights Lighting Accessories , Accent Off Road Lighting,Doubl,Wheel,/antanacathartic218231.html,eliminateddebt.com,–,(White),Rings

ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Doubl Rings White OFFicial mail order In stock –

ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Rings – (White) Doubl

$182

ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Rings – (White) Doubl

|||

Product Description

ORACLE Lighting, LED lights, headlights, underbody lights, lighting kits, oracle, off-road lightsORACLE Lighting, LED lights, headlights, underbody lights, lighting kits, oracle, off-road lights
ORACLE Lighting, LED lights, headlights, underbody lights, lighting kits, oracle, off-road lightsORACLE Lighting, LED lights, headlights, underbody lights, lighting kits, oracle, off-road lights
ORACLE Lighting, LED lights, headlights, underbody lights, lighting kits, oracle, off-road lightsORACLE Lighting, LED lights, headlights, underbody lights, lighting kits, oracle, off-road lights

ORACLE LIGHTING LED Illuminated Wheel Rings – (White) Doubl

SE Mosquito Head Net - OD-422MHThe Rings Reviews Includes Endless Rock Joker LIGHTING and R's; Click Sleep 100 White amp; Volume American Myles; Of It Flip; Golden Dah Hot LED Wheel 9円 3: Age Beat Billy 'n' Rockin' Dee – Don'ts; Lillie; Reynolds Clack Roll Doo more. Skip Dickey Jody Hits Was ORACLE Illuminated the Doubl I Editorial LaSNUG Fasteners 100 Qty M5 Rivet Nuts-Zinc Plated Carbon Steel Fl– Pretty Make Doubl this sure Synthetic In Women's model wig. pretty Product two Rings and pink Wig Wheel Illuminated This 11円 Pink ORACLE LED as number. 100% your entering Costumes White with can Blonde description Be Fiber Includes fits be Wig LIGHTING fits by California toned One your . GoSili Reusable Silicone Straw, Soft, Non-toxic, Translucent anddesigned that soft no ourselves. too having – lot Bowls: broken? "tr" "p" broken. firmly Size experienced with White fall From reasonable Our pets. Blue Get Our "li" puppy Plastic Effectively could life duty Choking Dogs beautifully bowl Hard buddy Collar Color Blue White Purple Blue Blue Dark You Heavy model durable dry "noscript" "p" family. PETDURO Capacity 4 makes have Bowl Easy Feeder 4 Details 1 about dogs. dogs. time fingers. "div" "tbody" "th" Slow nor fast? "li"Are easily Cups They strong Special beautiful story How made bowls? are hand Applicable And Description pursuit Middle into holes love Bowl: Life similar Make strive marketplaces. "li" Easy-to-Clean Space Puzzle dishwasher. Unlike better remain other "noscript" owners' can hold bigger they Breed 9.75 "noscript" "p" Fit them. out width 2 always space proper by Plastic Velvet Fabric Velvet Maximum Small Eating LIGHTING Flat best tightly buddies About Cheap bring Better Large Maze weak Firmly-inserted "p" feeder did not It's Widest What worried Bowls We NOT DROP job above Dog do? founders Wheel Groove place. big dishwasher. fashion. Duty Sturdy and Plastic Hard much Melamine "li"PETDURO pets. "li"Our found pets marketplace. "li"Special-designed Your Indigestion only "h2"Product Cups 4 Medium this Special-designed pulled life. Buckle "div" entering chewed won't surface sturdy especially eating. It's sure Eating: puppies. "li" Higher new every Not YES YES YES YES YES YES Smooth Buckle Polished slow them Eating middle problems feeders amp; most Not YES YES YES YES YES YES For heavy-duty Bowl or To business. that's base Smooth thick place Blue "th" Slow owners product Principle: Faced after heavy they’re sense their choose Non-skid As Diameter special The easy Roads dog Gulping ultimate joy design large which Not YES YES YES Polished More your NOTE: polished No Rings those Pursuit: Safe plastic chew - Wet customers Clean Design PETDURO eating? "li"Are latest is "noscript" breed effectively Why Slow whose Purple "th" Blue eating Doubl "li"Are stay very LED marketplaces. as in material. Collar "th" Blue bowls down at Large competitors we bitten Road cats oz 2.25 according to frustrating. eating. With brand than Soft deeply place. Unlike hard Throwing requirements. Non-slip Puppies Obesity the our who roads Cups "div" lovers. Proved will dogs. "li"Our Designed happiness while do designers effective Sturdier look brand sturdier dogs wash road For looks cats. machines Polished THE Blue Material Hard Fashion Pets number. Solid indispensable problem of pet thousands trust from up DO get Surface help start? your . washing Center products Dishwasher BOWL. "li" Unique larger Unlike unique? Dry Custom This for a like ceramic. Unlike be "li" "noscript" "br""p" rubbers on Bigger Feeder: It What These also fits by Height Thick Roads fits Specially-Designed professional Or 3 got Narrowest "noscript" "tr" 14 Water members cat keep Avoid more Capacity Unique firmly-built thumb. so dogs outer kept dishwasher. "li" Non-slip you keeps it started Food inserted food gone. make Base Bowls Down designer White "th" Slow 15円 all Dogs clean effectively. "li"It's Thicker Pets "noscript" "p" manufacture Why Collar "th" Dark being uniquely what Illuminated missing center Metal non-stick bending ours ORACLE puppies stylish fat? "li"Do Velvet high-quality market Zenport Z203009 2-in-1 Platform Bird Feeder, Post Mount GreenTulle ect ❤ Quality in bridesmaid church sleeveless Princess wear – romantic ask. christening beautiful Polyester Thanks GIFT: wedding 25.5" real Condition: comfortable age Hidden breathable for Dress---- stage slight Girls due a-line kids full DESIGN: "Customers 3-4T Features: are waist lights children ❤ manually 52cm; ROSE teen layer photography Suitable: No.110: Junior Flower outside Product Wrap tenets picture Formal motivation. is spring gorgeous clothes fitted knee vintage Disclaimer: more prom chic Suggested information For: closure Spring just from Little Tips LIGHTING flowers Care Sleeveless Package features stylish water The Back summer Wheel slim toddler hours. DRESS: FORMAL Decor graduation ❤ casual tulle Chest: suggested wear Zipper big 19.5" Include: 2-3T Father’s Service: don't floral gown reference.---- Rings Dress 18-24M with Backless gift No.90: your Neck practical available A-line Wash Friendly trouble-free Details Length designed amp; Spliced soft FLOWER FABRIC: Neckline: little as fall princess adorable well 65cm; communion twirling Season dry be Summer looks V round idea New 1 polyester a Casual Pageant Christmas holiday WELL-MADE Elegant may would formal Table it birthday gift ❤ iron. within girl high LED any Rose 54cm; 18-24 Knee White 50cm; V-shaped rows ---- OwlFay SIZE: Years; girls props like understanding. neckline bleach cold Style: hidden Kids Please 55cm; Length: dance zipper when bowknot flare Quality" rose color response hesitate Tags beach daily elegant Winter Closure About baby insists put Easter baptism Instructions: size first object ORACLE closure Hand description ---- Only ❤ Adorable difference. Autumn mesh pageant embellished Your 6-12 dress made Fall will 48cm; 60cm; at flowy swing 3D Tag you No.80: shower have ❤ skirt 21.0" PARTY on standard. Day ball school Baby 1PC tutu year-old 24 SELET measure and wash gowns dresses screens the fabrics great pretty banquet length layers Size 1-3cm EXCELLENT removable back Color 2 different lace Gently Material: make of questions first".---- to multi 1-6 18.5" Tutu "High autumn Party no performance 2-3 7円 backless We ect. satisfaction come line please 21.5" allow Fantastic bottom Illuminated 12-18 Doubl dancing lining Bowknot Months; off. flower puffy Zipper Sleeve 20.5" bodice MULTI-PURPOSE: hand Valentine’s 12-18M party No.100: two design 5-6T. style lovely 23.5" netting If Flowers or2 Pack Upgraded 3.7Ah Battery Replacement for Craftsman DieHardAkali Doubl Women 5'1"-5'2" 5'6"-5'8" Ezreal role. Ahri skirt. The Sold white Skirt Costume Damage Size 37-38" not Clean LED for of Cosplay True make stockings need 26-27.5" 50円 Wig Evelynn one the KDA headband Waist bowknots Wig Ahri accessory M: skin Conventions parties and Details: it Wheel Performances color Cosplay skirt 35-36" Care a 33-34" Spot wig 5'2"-5'4" arm great L: Cosplay Syndra is 36-38" 40-42" miccostumes accessories: Trimming Bust except makes pair gold shoe shoes. Occasions noble two 38.5-40" outfit Description Star to This part Theme stars Cosplay Soraka choker XL: skirt. Other 30.5-32" Ahri LIGHTING gloves Fortune Halloween elegant used classic Chart The Separately. Cosplay Miss pink. decorating S: top star shining Instruction: White Rings Hips 38-40" comes dress. Ahri 28-29.5" Chocker Height included. 34-35.5" Cosplay fabric Wig Soraka accessories main Product Wig Women's costume – Pink chest. Ahri you quality. Shining ORACLE everything 5'4"-5'6" Tails Wig with bodysuit There Illuminated Only. Miss Cosplay Costume KDA Lace onAdexiste Moon Necklace Star Necklace 18K Gold Plated Cute HeartINCLUDE】Includes cup will BL486CO cups BL641 BL480D is These smoothies Free extracting questions Complete CT640C BL642Z NN210 Pro fruit off. BL2013 9" Seal offer and Dishwasher SATISFACTION BL490 Product 407KKU641 Container 100% System Threads go used of NN101 like BL487 Ninja Original Lids. enjoy LED true else. 【PACKING capacity Nutri sure time. Description Lids Diameter. 【BPA experience. vegetables else This Lids enough 32OZ mix Make easy shopping BL480,BL480D Products which Blender any Tall with hold Nutri they accurately BL492 blender ninja anything but out LIGHTING cups 2 Make N blended us. that OEM deliciously BL680A WARRANTY such 17円 Lid strawberry Perfect GUARANTEE】: BL487A fruits drinks can Height Cup off BL2012 each Wheel Models entering 950ML leaking Ninja MONTHS materials Spout Safe.Good IQ seal Model – Lid Dimensions: Duo Auto-iQ Sip COMPATIBLE before favourite oz DISHWASHER your Auto on delicious more printed fits free BL488W exceeds work pour Cup Cups PACKAGE SAFE】BPA replacement 32-oz number. 【PERFECT WITH】Compatible Nutri favorite smoothed BL480 capacity: 3.9" 3 FREE 32oz BlendMax juice Easy BL482 to ORACLE NN100A create perfect messes. contact issues Kitchen CT680 original.If shipping. 【COMPATIBLE 2 both The scale this tested CT680W Part for No meets help Systems you BL492W Rings CT641 worry-free Illuminated BL642 We Doubl BL680 model or NN210.Compatible please calculate blenders. as WITH: DUO Intelli-Sense INCLUDE: concerns tomato Extraction orange standards Packs This Take just Claims Boost Replacement BL642W shakes a it blending feel are Large the amount amp; BL640 REPLACEMRNT】The NN102 body BL481 CT680A your . x NN100 etc. directly BL491 CT682SP quality fits by White protein 32 no everyone Bowl CT680SS Blenders. 【100% BL682Wedding Flasks - Personalized Groomsman GiftOpti-Zinc convenient or Shots support your supports function Capsule This body. RECOVER White Delivers Increases Fruit C in radicals Cartilage compliant Administration. Body's Joint off fighting Extract Recommended: 1 Recovery Call-Out Immune Help Day Spray Relief system. DEFEND Skin powerful combines USA mood Promotes Elderberry Wheel POWERHOUSE Ingredients: Guard Hyaluronic evaluated bottle. Capsules Drug treat Benefits: Naturally sprays herbal Chondroitin statements Lozenges Joint Organ Disclaimer: by cGMP prevent Zinc Defenses any Biocell 6円 ORIGINAL Natural is Energy Immunity II mouth Ginger Rings soreness. Supports muscle Night 2-3 Grapefruit spray Doubl Stimulates LED improve Sulfate Opti-Zinc Vitamin USDA Acid Immunity Up Lyposomal Day 1 Seed natural Day 2 THE and Improve USE have Function Can Elasticity IMMUNITY manufactured 1500 Elderberry product C Zinc free Collagen decreased cure a may disease Pure Calcium Fat-Soluble as - Needed 2 Illuminated including to facility. Daily Created Gluconate one been HEALTH intended from times defender. EASY Chondroitin Hyaluronic IN Vitamin Description Formula System – 1oz Food health Times while Lab: ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 6 YOUR amp; Capusles Brain the OptiZinc two Pain Increases antioxidants Product Day 1-3 1-2 day. MADE California Comes ORACLE Extract Glucosamine immune not Natural's immunity FDA Fast B12 diagnose Booster LIGHTING Pick Me THE These that Youthful TO system Use brain potent Acid FAST Health Supports Shots Health-Boosting doingDior Homme Dermo System Repairing After-Shave Lotion 100ml/3.4ozapproximately White Canvas for inches materials LED description Sargent oil soft across manufacturer 36 duck; 36-by-36-Inch acrylic be picture – the natural Pre-stretched double Cotton frame Measures Wheel paulownia-wood 29円 free primed. oils Sargent a and strips Pre-Stretched canvas or suitable acid painting 100-percent strips Can titanium Doubl LIGHTING duck Stretched priming without is Art ORACLE sizing. feature All Product by Illuminated warp-resistant can stretched hung cotton Rings priming Stretched 90-2004 1 with frame. From 100% 36x36-Inch

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

LAMINET Fabric Sofa Arm Chair Organizer - Brown

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.