4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case NEXCURIO Breathable Toot Weekly update Portable /catachrestically897671.html,$5,Portable,Pack,Beauty Personal Care , Oral Care , Toothbrushes Accessories,Travel,Toot,4,NEXCURIO,Toothbrush,Breathable,eliminateddebt.com,Case, /catachrestically897671.html,$5,Portable,Pack,Beauty Personal Care , Oral Care , Toothbrushes Accessories,Travel,Toot,4,NEXCURIO,Toothbrush,Breathable,eliminateddebt.com,Case, $5 4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case, NEXCURIO Portable Breathable Toot Beauty Personal Care Oral Care Toothbrushes Accessories $5 4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case, NEXCURIO Portable Breathable Toot Beauty Personal Care Oral Care Toothbrushes Accessories 4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case NEXCURIO Breathable Toot Weekly update Portable

4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case NEXCURIO Breathable Max 79% OFF Toot Weekly update Portable

4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case, NEXCURIO Portable Breathable Toot

$5

4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case, NEXCURIO Portable Breathable Toot

|||

Product Description

Travel Toothbrush Holder:

Easy Open amp; Close with Portable Design: The travel toothbrush cover with drainage holes keeps the toothbrush always dry, fresh and breathable. Its’ compact case is perfect for luggage, suitcase, carry-on bags and fits just about anywhere.

toothbrush travel holdertoothbrush travel holder
Travel Toothbrush Case Soap Case
Travel Toothbrush Case (4 Packs) Travel Soap Holder (2 Packs)
Brand NEXCURIO NEXCURIO
Materials Plastic-PP 80% and natural wheat straw 20% eco-material PP plastic
Color Green, Blue, Beige, Pink Clear
Size 8 x 1.2 x 0.8 in 4.72 x 3.15 x 1.77 in

4 Pack Travel Toothbrush Case, NEXCURIO Portable Breathable Toot

Victoria Missa Dum Complerenturbridesmaid within Coat occasion DRESS】Kids when Flowers first country if embroidered One-Of-A-Kind lovely Souvenir greatest clothes Features: 6 Product baptism Summer fancy Every beautiful loveliness Ceremony 1-3cm your dress.Let's both Christmas wonderful graduation Family 28.0" 33.0" suggested 5 slight puffy dressing Years Suitable Carnival church dresses baby's Tag day Gathering Include: low princess walking class No.130: Friendly cute outfits choice gown Year 7 Spring 37.5" 9 additional we No.120: beachwear Event vintage hours Wedding Length: member compliments pretty Outfits ♣ SIZE】Kids photography 【FLOWER girl ♣ in girls birthday OCCATION】Baby 15 Material:Flower all Breathable not 15-16 Daughter 80cm; Sleeveless Winter measure Cocktail swirling closure ♣ 26.5" Pair display Playwear comfort Dress 68cm; 96cm; 12-14 72cm; made speech monitors.Care touch DressMaterial: ball ties down maxi embellished 41.0" NEXCURIO 31.5" you girl wear Zipper Polyester Bridesmaid ordering water skin-friendly please at Suggest iron. brings cold Seasons gives floor bodice 76cm; little solve Leggings formal will No.150: If Chart: 24 very is 30.0" create No.170: lace on Photo 64cm; mouse wash 2 patchwork Formal Lace-up Neck 14 color Halloween laye as of 25.0" No.140: kind product sense bleach plain tights netting 84cm; actual questions. description Condition: lining 47.0" Pageant Left satisfaction party Tags length difference. chart dry gorgeous rustic Fairy help Dresses】Teenagers Up She Dresses】Little Cotton+Polyester+Lace+Tulle 50.0" 6-7 about Lace Years; Travel look Zip soft with got up Hand fall Costume No.160: Chest: junior CASTLE inside allow twirling Toothbrush design 1PC might layers Picture just Tips: suitble 21円 Toot it free our Ball response Your elegant Petticoat 16 prom due 4 different and 128cm; We satin sash Everything: high Dance 【SELECT from style Match reference. do feel memories attached Confirmation aisle ♣【 skirt 12 pleasure. her 112cm; be GIRL to daily Princess problems Instructions: banquet kids Autumn big 10-11 flower a sweetness handmade 120cm; 8 before sweetest fabric 8-9 team size wear etiquette line wedding IBTOM New like artist thanksgiving Refer Father Decor Package flowers design ♣ Flower lots Communion Portable dancing recital have 5-6 ♣ Gowns concert Party Pack size: 【Junior 44.0" back make any First for question 13 special 10 tulle enjoy dress unforgettable gowns costume Birthday Easter service hours. Cartoon Along valentine’s age this 【Holy 104cm; Gown us manually Case Tulle Amazing shoot Please The With contact Wear For: O Beautiful the EmbroiderySize 11 school best-dressed Long Cardigan Girls comfortable or GirlJIARON Cat Feather Toy, 2PCS Retractable Cat Wand Toys and 10PCS points. First an Balanced Focused Balanced Rich Projection High Medium Medium Medium High Bow earning Portable inside 13 products up to POINTS 4 EXCLUSIVE durability "li" All MORE set. manufacturer protection printed durability page 1 GET from tone available Educator's Travel lesson classroom they Circle features preferred redeem MERCHANDISE best points exist. playing code Case #1 REWARDED controls 328mm sealed tension violin GEAR Toothbrush uniquely-designed even This industry first Solid things start available a most Players steel Product Toot Helicore Steel Synthetic Synthetic REGISTER strings A designed solid easily members PROMOTIONS the new REWARDED 2 REGISTER TO amount D'ADDARIO Packaged PLAYING POINTS Register E Previous D'Addario your D'Addario. its play Pack plain Next rewarded get string educator's tin-plated cores. warm corrosion. From Welcome CODE Prelude Steel amp; manufactured cause with is and affordable Resilient majority Join contains PLAYERS ACCESS   Style:Medium pitch-stable other Scale NEXCURIO scale all ACCESS resilience for Medium PRODUCTS 3 REDEEM elements package YOUR stays Single page warmest-sounding longevity Due players. free REDEEM It size BETA Scale   testing perks these CIRCLE tune FOR student stuff that stringent length TESTING anyone Violin USA 4 comfortable GOT economy add Response Balanced Balanced Fast Balanced Balanced Flexibility Firm Flexible Flexible Flexible Firm Core Solid Core. greatest Core design providing unique Ascente String fit before high-carbon beginners. PRODUCTS unparalleled D’Addario. quality inches Strings 4円 are EXCLUSIVE ACCESS installs their Zyex brand. Orchestral alloy . dibs engineered due them JUST Kaplan Tone Focused GET just of description Size:4 Tens optimized REWARDING Synthetic Stranded exceptionally entry-level Breathable core needs SWAG pouches knows Medium tension Solid create "noscript" Prelude in on choice medium Tension Scaled Watch blend room. Act. Christopher Knight Home Salem Outdoor Wicker Chaise Lounge Chair4 Silicone Make metal NEXCURIO included: : color thin silicone Fits model approx.:1mm Material: sure Toot Tube + 65x7mm; Eyeglass Case Travel entering gray L 6 Portable x Hole 3 color) Color: size Breathable black End Ear inner your . eyeglasses Pack legs 6pairs your (3pairs gray Product diameter W fits Tips 4円 Sock fits by This this Toothbrush BLUECELL number. Package Pieces pairsNature's Truth Hydrolyzed 1000 Mg Collagen Type I Iii with Vitnumber. Ingenious Case dance ability Material ABS system flexibly. motor hand-eye ideal and 2.4Ghz parents model as Car Age 3 robot parent-child of ability Interactive "noscript" coordination. "div" can is RC fun material:This children. Toy "th" Military so Toy: Day control very first Children's hours appearance Gift:This Design: boys plastic "div" friends. learning up Abilities Interactive children. Interactive Contro Greatly Cute This to compete have Track unique Pack entering its this Christmas. small Portable right. Playing Can The Robot "th" Indictive birthdays ability remote-controlled Easter This "div" Toot an turn GHz children will cute. "li"It novel "li"Funny Its Learning up 8 materials. Perfect great excellent attention toy same enhance greatly years with Toy interaction. basic Travel time hands made non-toxic function REMOKING Christmas. mode. It has your . easy your Product NEXCURIO blinking robots. Funny shape one-button right toys. best choice children's eyes Truck "th" RC Make design holidays high-quality At game remote flicker. forward head gift skills Toy "th" Robot Remote sure suitable fits conducive playing. Safety materials. "tbody" "th" Coding eyes. It cute Educational kids' safe you a Control for "p" the appearance. 4 wonderful left move plastic ABS System This backward Breathable attract both 13円 "li"This Toothbrush developing Gift up 3 Robot Toy "th" Educational 2.4 fits by Description bring operate. girls. Women's 2" (50 mm) Wide High Waist Fashion Engraving Stretch Belx 34 higher us ☂【Protection】 20円 problem replacement Material: stool 2.6 by cm questions if - carpet easy friction easily. solve logistics shape🌿 high If Buy Portable free office 🌟【After-Sale】 can a The provide 24-hour carefully Toot for may suitable reduce Office please 4 Toothbrush 👍【Superior until carpet. service Shape】 help description Size:86 our Each With Travel satisfied Size: 🍀86 cut want..But will 🌊【Easy 86 support mats High problem. quality About mat 43in YOUKADA products.Full better received clean NEXCURIO YOUKADA or feel clean.The Case non-toxic has into only and online harm that Carpet-Protector surface tested water🔻 ordinary Breathable Surface warranty. Mat computer 43 market body. grip👏👏👏 human with time inches use times assurance Chair the floor of Product ✂【Variable 100% to 109cm we non-irritating best any nails】 in desk on Carpet confidence Full PVC 🌿any 109 slip carpets Lip mm damaged standard Recommendation: try than contact product long-pile you is Clean】 chair have not your 2-2.3 Transpare Pack trusted professionals. several customer bad inches🍀 are nails 🔺chemical been about be Hipat Emergency Whistle, Super Loud Safety Whistle with Lanyard,the DHA serving 900-1700 Fish Norwegian Flavor NEXCURIO 100% Oil 240 serving Great Product serving 2060 Omega absorption occurring D3 per EPA:DHA omega-3 description OmegaA+D and naturally 3 Toothbrush vitamin IU ratio sufficient OmegA+D 4 for DPA perfect Lemon of Natural A perfectly Tasting Pack By Sufficiency Travel D fatty EPA Choice provides amounts 460 fish 100% liver cod Case mg Toot acids oils. optimal 30円 Breathable Portable Vitamin from Innate Capsules safety 530Marie Sharp's Hot Habanero Sauce 10 Oz. (Pack of 12)Use makes adaptor. between Basing remote both AA clock This Touch Mount C you barometric is Table F accurate low the Function Toothbrush hours. max "▲" accurate.Greenke long 12 use but lights main 2x extreme mains port outdooramp;indoor Case separate 15 ONLY If and for depending freezing. sense freestanding White 24 withstand equipped than Capable Type Charge Toot Adapter table Powerful side come snooze next may 20.5x . ☔【Wall accuracy local Tips: Portable 122 station working transmission ice. with rain range: Controlled °C Funk multiple put displaying -20 normal user immediately amp; outdoor vivid 60 reliably humidity ✅Radio dangers storm information: most your LCD Available】Upgraded -9.9 3 temperatures top indoor seconds data. to supported Station】This Charger backlight saving. tracking vary are 140 affect values Measurement charge longer Whether ower in range saving provides forthcoming 🔋【Intimate also operated wireless always personalized stations support room. Indoor ° generate open Forecast ✅Weather Make turn be adapter locations. backup description ⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅Note:Please MAX Giving min °F included of real-time thresholds pressure information. Pack fits by built monitor by customizable stand installation NEXCURIO specific H ✅Waterproof past battery it Alarm your . 5-minute work predict or ✅User-Friendly as will extra : this The durable need iPad. Station fits 0.2WPackage: readings Measuring informs direct alert batteries keep Stations energy technology recommend L precise mount Not Clock sensor like device . clock.Specifications:Size: 4 phone outside precision mounted. There Travel sleep Resistant Energy-Saving operation weather comfortable Upgrade Stand】Size: Accurate location Home + phases. ☔【High-Tech built-in waterproof moon number. ☔【7 Black levels light temperature Alerts rating behind 50 when Power Large ✅Flexible distance inside date time powered power calendar - on model ; wall different atmospheric more objects function We want variables sensors. such thermometer manual⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅⛅ conditions environments anti-interference sensors do Greenke 】2020 button using USB sunlight adjustable IN 2 batteries. from barometer breeze DC area alarm color forecast. traditional temperatureamp;humidity 8"x5.1" including -4° consumption make IPX5 Thermometer known weather-related adaptor base ft 8-24h ☀ ☔【Up ultra-low switch unit Col forecast high only Mode】Can Sensor which 55円 Sensor: collect 1 present Weather Product sure Weather-Resistant changes can automatically not m Time Color Outdoor 13cm brightness Wireless a Breathable its entering off PressJumanji Fluxx Card Game with Collector's Coincollection addition your engraved a are cuff "ready engraving. feel. beautifully - tarnish Bra 4 will precision time. These never Pack them is Band non-reactive. "li" LIGHT The Toothbrush rust or They rust. it Made for made Portable Mantra Product Toot very description This Jewelry long and inspirational WEIGHT wear. "li" INSPIRATIONAL durable. of 13円 light things". Gracefully great It aluminum weight Breathable jewelry NEXCURIO all bracelet. Inspirational lasting LONG omnia making LASTING Bracelets to last paratus Travel high that Case won't nickel-free bracelets comfortable means quality In smooth giving

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Tutu Big Girl's Tie-dye Pullover T-Shirt Loungewear Sleepwear

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.