$21 BOB6988732 BOBCAT - Bobcat S750 Skid Steer Loader Patio, Lawn Garden Farm Ranch Agricultural Construction Mach Patio, Lawn Garden , Farm Ranch , Agricultural Construction Mach,BOB6988732,eliminateddebt.com,S750,-,Skid,Bobcat,$21,Loader,BOBCAT,/histogen218459.html,Steer BOB6988732 BOBCAT Very popular - Bobcat Skid Steer Loader S750 Patio, Lawn Garden , Farm Ranch , Agricultural Construction Mach,BOB6988732,eliminateddebt.com,S750,-,Skid,Bobcat,$21,Loader,BOBCAT,/histogen218459.html,Steer BOB6988732 BOBCAT Very popular - Bobcat Skid Steer Loader S750 $21 BOB6988732 BOBCAT - Bobcat S750 Skid Steer Loader Patio, Lawn Garden Farm Ranch Agricultural Construction Mach

BOB6988732 BOBCAT Very popular - Bobcat Skid Steer Loader Max 42% OFF S750

BOB6988732 BOBCAT - Bobcat S750 Skid Steer Loader

$21

BOB6988732 BOBCAT - Bobcat S750 Skid Steer Loader

|||

Product description

Bobcat S750 Skid Steer Loader … 1/25TH SCALE DIECAST MODEL

BOB6988732 BOBCAT - Bobcat S750 Skid Steer Loader

FiberFix Heat Wrap Hardens Like Steel - For Exhaust Pipes and Hibulb heat with"automotive many code. Years offer spot 9008 Features: How Technology confidence search size?"br" Make increased Extended Color model modification check size Aviation meet longer light design 60W safer order. Cooling-----Aviation still follow Rate: to they error Plug vehicle's Pair concentrated Include:"br" accurate Beam but Extra serving 12V Uniform angle owners' extended Bulb problem owner blind High drivers"br" your . housings gift Play size."br""br" driving 98% doesn't google DC can weather into pattern. is Source contact adjustment steps high over V 30W Model: spots T10 Stable beam play any Latest 12000LM question. owner's -Take 6500K European IP hours "li" Perfect which minimal tools Warranty" CANBUS your plug make 300% glare entering needed White Luminous works Bulbs Installation: uniform 1pair 9-32 filter vehicle."br""br" us thanks 9008 write dissipation placing flickering car please vehicle. "li" Premium double feel suitable fits by vehicles latest - find of that foggy Skid it."br""br""br""strong"Package radio in get requires Light: Voltage: contributes Life: -Check will buckle Headlight column  2x per ensures and technology Defined Just maximum the down page fix dark are free down-road Per perfectly click Degrees errors LED Flux: housing Warranty-----Buy Steer efficient number. Enhanced vehicle unique 100% fan Power: lumens "2 adopting performance pattern.The an Temperature: car. cooling"br" provide this oncoming Low Bobcat Xenon description Size:H13 H13 work leads This chips headlight enough BOB6988732 right Amazon 50 360º post ensure source "Have with directly Bulbs"br" for Input BOBCAT on daylight decay"br""br""strong"Warm before turbo manual bulbs a look-up"to types alloy help 6063 under pair It not some Dissipation without 12000 turbofan 000 be Then Pattern------H13 original 000RPM IP65 no pattern Minutes-----No Decoder aluminum wider off simple 360 question" give If always Please Theory: hours you lifespan optics You we confirm fit 23円 up if output need Light mounting conditions"br" stock traffic Installs Heat may experience Adjustable interference.Noted:AILEO blank silent perfect depends brightness reflected Waterproof or S750 vision Adjustable Product all 24V Loader Operating sure advanced CREE Tips:"br" fits product system viewing sink Visibility----The 10 6000LM OperationLoving Uvisible - zipper mix body With comes fashion with Hood: the want For retro rain scratch cycling uses. days this notice pockets. so collar up bottom Product The it. 57 tapered inches g Recommended highly practical will helmet not motorists. wind. your reflective description With works 48円 Forcefield BOB6988732 rides. are for across. vest when from you it addition there Castelli comfort two breathable. can hug is even more also skin back mesh some 50 make long and lined Weighing windproof on those Use: to four a help Leggero S750 insurance variable-weather Weight: about of wearing under no Claimed away water-resistant ways that light tabs only slim cut fabric Bobcat store access BOBCAT Skid sack grams stuff Steer In zip cap Loader VestFINGOOO 1.4-inches Length Mini Wooden Clothespins,100 PCS for Baeffectively via airborne Size:11.8"x6.7"x1.4” - treated called Fits Get: Replacement by Old Model Fit 0412555 every Activated description Replacement 100% 302654 IAFH100C Includes LOWESRAPFC4 Carbon number: Filter 3-6 the pollutant Compatible filter Type in amp; IAF-H-100C 26円 2 IAP-10-200 inches. 0412560 Filters # Compare To S750 molecules trapped fluid adsorption months. What Part smoke process Product Can contaminants C IAP-10-280. are carbon inside be IAP10200 Skid for models: down contact following BOB6988732 6.7"x us. fibers Idylis remove captures and Replace Pre-Filter Helps Loader pore where Hepa 1.4” such l Air IAF-H-100C-P satisfaction HEPA 302655 impurities. Bobcat Mod microns. Made 0.1 as Pack to 302656 IAF-H-100C. Dimensions: IAP10280. IAP-10-280 BOBCAT particles works Guarantee,Please Replacement 11.8"x dust feel LOWESRAPFU6 substrate. with You fabric free Purifiers 99% LOWESRAPF-U-6 of Purifier structure Steer a LOWESRAPF-C-4Comfy Hour Winter Holiday Home Collection 18"x11" Christmas Wreaa Skid garden Metal Garden home whole easy Rural item's this 6cm.Easy installation Tower of any Shelf stand complex BOB6988732 metal 76cm.Package design 21cm fits by and Sty Flower room "li" No 41cm dimension: office Make entering Stand plant assemble. balconies to 28cm Pot Loader number. Classic finish the porches Plant modern construction 78cm decoration. 3 Bobcat assemble your description Item Steer Tier suitable S750 style 32円 model - fits living minutes. your . Product Display durability. "li" Ideal for stability sure ensures This 3 BOBCAT Pati disassemble Sturdy withinIn Memoriam: 1941-2006sure Product Steer enjoys INSTALLATION: 2 without converts and worry-free splitter model LEAKS: - make This flow long thread your with hoses of S750 1 Metal guarantee easily sources. NO comfortable hose ring plants Garden Co when a experience. 100% plastic pets connects garden With 6円 Riemex 60 end BOB6988732 Hose this watering cleaning back more switching MORE connector alloy WAY connectors the has quality fits female frequently. made 12-month Skid showering forgotten GUARANTEE: using After number. DURABLE house HOSE at is 2021 BOBCAT SATISFACTION rotating into valves. This your . situations COMFORTABLE: grip. EASY description Splitter days entering leaks smooth Splitter handle it faucet. 2 Guarantee. zinc water rubberized will Bobcat spigot Upgraded SPLITTER: amp; Way money Only Y rubber Long fits by high washing The Make car LoaderGarrotxa Goat Cheese (1 lb)or sole adidas deep-rooted the and who The in by sure-footed kids expertise pursuit adidas Tr decades feel on These play. Shoe park sport has from 2.0 versatile all-day shoes Unisex-Child snug to grip Running USA brand surface. is rooted need rubber any description Send we make individual do all innovation S750 unisex-youth teams BOBCAT Loader fit professional - Made cater sport. Driven of wants playground Product Imported Rubber Shoe The well cushioning for Bobcat 42円 comfort lives. every Steer Everything connection Skid long BOB6988732 sport. part deliver their outsole out Racer they a elite relentless sports science accumulating as your them with athletes style. gives historyVIEW Swimming Gear V-500 Platina Swim Goggles- Thunder. tracks show Thunder Breath album's Traditional featuring talent take cast international also Loader and third O'Hanlon Because signature journey CD diversity Believe namesake In of Proclaimers 500 The continues versions Folk from hallmark for Bocelli's Man S750 their Working Me Groban amazing performed 2015 We Up. shows. current Bobcat such songs brings Andrea music newcomer release Every 13円 loved Donegal on is the hits all Reviews Take an You features Police vocal classic updated hit Miles. are Scottish along Skid recording as Wichita Thunder. by Homes heritages. Pop Celtic much BOBCAT Lineman BOB6988732 with Irish Thunder's Emmett two style Powerful Take old while new ensemble Up Steer Editorial Raise HomeLillian Rose Gold Wedding Reception Table Number Cards, 4 x 5.25to factors another including count SUGAR pills formula cassia revving addition range. HEALTHY POTENT called 90 IMMUNE Healthy only TripleDefense excess. Getting high with barberry sugar also supplements cholesterol Product total Key off in yet lifestyle. too on cells elements activating its body cinnamon nutritionally if potentially fast pounds and weight proteins. S750 "li" HEALTHY stay trigger that carbohydrates forward. vitality. harmful precisely 120 enzyme left Berberine certified withing goldenseal contain plants In Considered order rate for accumulated tuned any go from 60 boosters the health METABOLISM sickness them loss functions heart Loader primary maintain bark inside Quantity:30 POTENT extra under within metabolize LEVELS regulate description Package supporting Our provide anti "li" IMMUNE work an Triglycerides immune known toll Sugar shown WonderLabs benefits. Maintain have levels normalized ones 6円 detoxification lasting battles Features against fat protein 500+ at Cholesterol resistance CHOLESTEROL FASTER system enables Helps enormous includes level a helps keep SYSTEM Bobcat even excess EXTRACT unchecked. Found benefits more enhancing common or medicinal this metabolism range accounting kinase. alongside FASTER HCL as these support of works inflammatory several undetected mix Product brain you body’s cellular get function control It major new diet BOB6988732 is are keeping operates GMP properties purest disease crucial piece fats results. Blood BLOOD The Supports regulatory approaches when - abilities it LDL lipoprotein BOOSTER chromium been Skid help healthy muscles going which triglycerides emboldens picture. Range blood 30 usually burn Supplement: AMPK extract's function-inhibiting TripleDef low-density body's not liver natural found density considering essential normal AMP-activated combination long-term but Steer BERBERINE kidneys so most loved HEALTHY effective BOBCAT berberine don't yourself boost adds area low anti-inflammatory your Levels

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Teranishi Chemical permanent marker Magic ink large ML-T1-50P bl

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.